Key ingredients include Vitamin C 30%: L-Ascorbic Acid 15% provides optimal antioxidant action on the epidermis. Ascorbyl Silanol 14.5% is a combination of Silanol and Vitamin C which provides superior anti-free radical and anti-ageing actions with deep penetration. Ascorbyl Ester 0.5% provides double age defense action as it limits collagen degradation and the proliferation of the melanin. Vitamin E ester, also a powerful antioxidant, complements and potentiates Vitamin C’s efficacy and stability. Ferulic Acid ester is a renowned antioxidant that boosts and enhances the photo-protection action of Vitamin C & E.